Arrays and Hashes

Arrays and hashes are two fundamental data structures, not only in Ruby, but in programming in general. In this blog post, I will go over what arrays and hashes are, how they are alike, how they differ, and how to use them.

Note that Ruby hashes are ordered. In most programming languages, hashes are not ordered, and professional programmers avoid using Ruby's ordered hash feature. The following blog post will heed that advice, and ignore the fact that Ruby hashes are ordered.


An array is an ordered collection of objects. Unlike in other languages, in Ruby you can mix-and-match the type of objects that a single array holds. Arrays are useful because they give us a way to group a collection of data that, conceptually, belongs together, and allows us to refer to this collection using a single variable. For example, let's say that you are trying to hold the first name, last name, and age of a person. (Note, depending on your needs, an array may not be the best data structure to use here, but it illustrates the point).. Without an array, the code would look like this:

 first_name = "Steven"
 last_name = "Leiva"
 age = 28

That doesn't seem to be now, but what if you had to do that for multiple people? You're code would then morph into an ugly beast:

 first_name_1 = "Steven"
 last_name_1 = "Leiva"
 age_1 = 28

 first_name_2 = "Stephen"
 last_name_2 = "Leipha"
 age_2 = 28

With an array, we could simply group a person, like so:

 person_1 = ["Steven", "Leiva", 28]
 person_2 = ["Stephen", "Leipha", 28]

Accessing Data in an Array

Now, we can access the data in the variable person_1 by using syntax such as person_1[0]. Because arrays are ordered, this code snippet will provide the first name.

Arrays Can Hold Any Data

Arrays, remember, are useful for grouping together data. In our code above, we created two arrays, each of which holds the information for a person. We can also group this data together:

 persons = [ ["Steven", "Leiva", 28], ["Stephen", "Leipha", 28]]

The above is called a two-dimensional array, since each element in the array is another array. Now, when we access persons[0], we would get back an array containing ["Steven", "Leiva", 28]. To get to the first name of the first person, we'd use the syntax persons[0][0]


Hashes are similar to arrays, in that they can be used to store a collection of data. However, while we use the element's index to access the data within an array, we use a hash's keys to access the data within a hash. In other words, hashes are dictionaries, they map a key to a value. This property is very useful. Let's go back to our example of storing the data for an individual, but this time, let's do so via a hash. The code would look something like this:

 person_1 = {"first_name" => "Steven", "last_name" => "Leiva", "age" => 28}

What's the big deal of what we have done? Well, when we were using an array to store a person's information, we had to remember that we stored the first name in the first element, the second name in the second element, and the age in the third element. Now, with hashes, we don't have to remember any of that. We can access the age by simply using person_1["age"].

Hashes Are Generalized Arrays

In fact, Hashes are a generalization of arrays. We can create the functionality of an array in a hash, like so:

 person_1 = { 0 => "Steven", 1 => "Leiva", 2 => 28 }

I can't think of a single reason why you would do the above, but to Ruby, we've created a hash. That hash, though, behaves like an array, in that I would have to remember what "index" stores what information.